Estuar. Or, at least, recent studies about seagrass restoration report high costs and low success rates. 520_001/3. (2018). Ambio 31, 588–596. Of course, a thriving bed of seagrass has beauty, function, and value apart from what it means to fisheries, but knowing what it contributes to improving fisheries stocks can help put the cost of restoration into better perspective. Figure 1. B 370:20140003. 200, 169–180. However, evidence suggests that non-local sources of restoration material may outperform those from local provenance under future climates (Sgrò et al., 2011; Aitken and Whitlock, 2013; Miller et al., 2019a). Reed, J., Schwarz, A., Gosai, A., and Morrison, M. (2004). For example, the seeds of Zostera spp. (2013) used Posidonia oceanica seedlings from beach-cast fruits for seagrass plantings and obtained relatively high success, with 44% survival for 3 years. 17:13–14. Wabnitz, C. C., Andréfouët, S., Torres-Pulliza, D., Müller-Karger, F. E., and Kramer, P. A. support this mitigation. doi: 10.1177/1075547016656191, Martins, G. M., Thompson, R. C., Neto, A. I., Hawkins, S. J., and Jenkins, S. R. (2010). Ecol. Long-term climate-associated dynamics of a tropical seagrass meadow: implications for the future. Bot. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200059, Lee, K.-S., and Park, J.-I. A comparative test of mechanized and manual transplanting of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in Chesapeake Bay. Genetic signatures of Bassian glacial refugia and contemporary connectivity in a marine foundation species. (2014). Extent of Seagrass in the Bay of Plenty in 2011. Environ. (2016). U.S.A. 116, 25179–25185. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, Marine Ecosystem Restoration (MER) – Challenges and New Horizons Ecosystem 8, 721–730. Chron. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12240, Williams, E. K., Watene-Rawiri, E. M., and Tipa, G. T. (2018). Mar. IUCN Red List Threat. In New Zealand, it is recommended that restoration initiatives be grounded in tikanga Māori and Māori values and perspectives, and be co-designed with Māori to ensure benefit and utility to Māori (Williams et al., 2018). Seagrass isn't sexy, but 'nurseries of the Gulf' are a key part of oil spill restoration Updated Jan 13, 2019; Posted Feb 06, 2015 Seagrass restoration project Ocean Technol. doi: 10.3354/meps261123, Schlaepfer, M. A., Helenbrook, W. D., Searing, K. B., and Shoemaker, K. T. (2009). Mar. Biol. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(91)90081-F, Duffy, J. E., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Trinanaes, J., Muller-Karger, F. E., Ambo-Rappe, R., Boström, C., et al. Management and Conservation of Seagrass in New Zealand: An Introduction. These carbon accumulation rates will be useful for planners and policy makers in assessing the potential of restored … These same principles can be applied to seagrass restoration. Historically, marine restoration has trailed behind terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, owing in part due to the scale of the marine environment and common ownership of resources (e.g., in international waters) which often leads to difficulties in management (Hawkins et al., 2002). 18, 538–548. The Network currently has more than 50 members from around the globe. Change Biol. Biol. As marine angiosperms with root and rhizome systems anchored in sediments, seagrasses exist in a unique ecological niche in the marine system as organisms that create underwater rhizospheres. Shelf Sci. January 25, 2018. 101, 1288–1297. (2020). (2005). Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observa-tions from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt- doi: 10.7717/peerj.3114, Cussioli, M. C., Bryan, K. R., Pilditch, C. A., de Lange, W. P., and Bischoff, K. (2019). 134, 145–151. 175pp. These positive interactions could be especially important for species that are not abundant seed producers, and should be carefully considered to not only increase restoration success, but also potentially reduce donor meadow impact through making the best use of the plants harvested. Ecol. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 53, 967–972. Evol. Mar. A. This requires extensive pre-planning and sufficient time to consult with Traditional Owners prior to a project commencing. Seagrass rehabilitation: successful transplants and evaluation of methods at different spatial scales. Rare long-distance dispersal event leads to the world’s largest marine clone. 208, 171–188. 15, 168–179. Campbell, M. L. (2003). (1994). Leederville: Oceanica Consulting Pty Ltd. Olsen, Y. S., Sánchez-Camacho, M., Murbà, N., and Duarte, C. M. (2012). Prog. For example, connectivity estimates can be used to identify areas that are more likely to recover naturally following decline (e.g., areas that have steady supply of propagules from non-local sources) and areas that have limited recovery potential due to recruitment limitations (e.g., isolated areas expected to receive minimal or no propagule recruitment from non-local sources). Glob. 51, 96–109. 52, 542–556. Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.06.017, Rasheed, M. A. Scientists clearly provide an important role during research and development, and ongoing monitoring and providing information for adaptive management. 116, 104–109. With the exception of the research undertaken by Matheson, restoration efforts in New Zealand are typically focused upon shellfish (e.g., Marsden and Adkins, 2010; Hewitt and Cummings, 2013), which are important taonga for Māori (e.g., Paul-Burke et al., 2018). Prog. Furthermore, Statton et al. 61, 305–320. There are several well-established seagrass restoration frameworks published to date, including the five-step program by Campbell (2002), which consists of decision-making trees in the planning process for restoration. J. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2008.00045.x, Browne, L., Wright, J. W., Fitz-Gibbon, S., Gugger, P. F., and Sork, V. L. (2019). Govers, L. L. (2018). Efforts were largely focused on Zostera marina (van Katwijk et al., 2016). We aim to create the first ever full scale seagrass restoration project in the UK, doing our best for Goal 14: Life Below Water. In certain situations, coastal development will proceed, and loss of seagrass habitat is inevitable. Appl. Natural hardwood is a favorite flooring for people who like the idea of using mostly natural materials in their flooring, but it can get expensive. Improving water quality is key to restoring seagrass coverage. This technique provides sufficient weight to keep the transplanted shoots in place and has led to the successful restoration of about 1.5 ha of seagrass in three estuaries (Lange et al., in review). Lastly, the current consensus in seagrass restoration is to arrange transplanted seeds, fragments or cores spaced apart to reduce competition, allowing for increased growth and survival (Halpern et al., 2007). (2010). How well do revegetation plantings capture genetic diversity? Theuerkauf, S. J., and Lipcius, R. N. (2016). Eng. Estuar. Hawkins, S. J., Allen, J. R., Ross, P. M., and Genner, M. J. Innovative techniques for large-scale seagrass restoration using Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds. Bot. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12637, Cumming, E., Jarvis, J. C., Sherman, C. D. H., York, P. H., and Smith, T. M. (2017). Mar. 360, 357–366. 15, 717–728. Previous studies also indicate that genetic diversity is positively correlated with seagrass-related community species richness and productivity (Crutsinger et al., 2006; Whitlock, 2014). Ecol. Posidonia sinuosa. Depczynski, M., Cook, K., Cure, K., Davies, H., Evans-Illidge, L., Forester, T., et al. While grassroots restoration efforts are important for upscaling restoration efforts, there needs to be effective communication of the science underpinning restoration to regional managers and community volunteers to improve the likelihood of success. While more complex models (e.g., Leathwick et al., 2008; Moilanen et al., 2011) may be desirable in the longer term, simple decision support tools for prioritizing seagrass restoration already exist that allow management agencies to maximize returns by targeting sites where intervention would be the most cost-effective (e.g., Grech et al., 2011; Tan et al., 2018). doi: 10.1007/BF02912041, Nordlund, L. M., Jackson, E. L., Nakaoka, M., Samper-Villarreal, J., Beca-Carretero, P., and Creed, J. C. (2018a). Eutrophication, phase shift, the delay and the potential return in the Greifswalder Bodden. Iron additions reduce sulfate reduction rates and improve seagrass growth on organic-enriched carbonate sediments. Recovery of experimentally created gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni (Aschers.) Māori Mussel Memory. which possess a hard seed coat can be viable up to 12 months in storage (Orth et al., 2000), whereas the seeds of Enhalus acoroides were only able to survive a maximum of 11 days in storage (Ambo-Rappe and Yasir, 2015). doi: 10.1002/aqc.3141, Loke, L. H. L., Bouma, T., and Todd, P. (2017). Predicting the cumulative effect of multiple disturbances on seagrass connectivity. Aquat. Therefore, future restoration may require looking at alternative strategies, such as mixed provenancing (mixing of seed from multiple sources; Broadhurst et al., 2008). Ecosyst. Severe continental-scale impacts of climate change are happening now: extreme climate events impact marine habitat forming communities along 45% of Australia’s coast. Biodivers. This review describes several restoration successes in Australia and New Zealand, with a focus on emerging techniques for restoration, key considerations for future programs, and highlights the benefits of increased collaboration, Traditional Owner (First Nation) and stakeholder engagement. However, the true extent of seagrass loss remains uncertain due to estimates of seagrass areal extent globally being unknown, with many regions of Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and the western Indian Ocean still largely understudied and/or undocumented (Gullström et al., 2002; Wabnitz et al., 2008; Fortes et al., 2018). Department for Environment and Water (2017). doi: 10.1111/mec.15128, Miller, B. P., Sinclair, E. A., Menz, M. H. M., Elliott, C. P., Bunn, E., Commander, L. E., et al. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00692.x, Marsden, I. D., and Adkins, S. C. (2010). Tanner, J. E., and Theil, M. J. 281:20140878. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0878, Miller, A. D., Coleman, M. A., Clark, J., Cook, R., Naga, Z., Doblin, M. A., et al. Oyster reefs enhance conditions for seagrass growth through provision of physical protection from wave action (Piazza et al., 2005), improve water clarity through filtering particulate organic matter (Plutchak et al., 2010), and increase sedimentation and nutrient inputs through addition of feces (Newell and Koch, 2004). Climatic niche models and their consensus projections for future climates for four major forest tree species in the Asia-Pacific region. can we do it? Aust. The median cost of seagrass restoration was estimated at USD 106,782 per hectare based on 64 published studies (Bayraktarov et al.,2016), and this can be 10–400 times higher than the costs documented for terrestrial ecosystem restoration (Jacob et al.,2018). Community based ecological monitoring in Nova Scotia: challenges and opportunities. Altogether, more than 40,000 shoots were transplanted in the three systems. HAM2012-037. An adapted version of this method is currently being trialed for underwater seeding. Mar. Conservat. doi: 10.1007/s00367-020-00640-0, Dafforn, K. A. Natl. Prog. Restoration success rates are improving globally, and while future failures cannot be ruled out, they will offer guidance for improving subsequent attempts. Ecol. An Australian example from Western Australia’s Dampier Peninsula includes a collaboration between Western Scientists and the Bardi Jawi Indigenous rangers who have joint objectives to incorporate indigenous knowledge into the management of over 250 km of Kimberley coastline (Depczynski et al., 2019). Long-term Seagrass Monitoring in Roebuck Bay, Broome: Report on the First 10 Years. Seagrass wrack has many important ecological functions (Kirkman and Kendrick, 1997; Ince et al., 2007; Del Vecchio et al., 2017), but can also pose problems for coastal managers as its over-accumulation is often viewed as a nuisance by the public and high costs are incurred in their removal (Macreadie et al., 2017). doi: 10.1007/s10533-007-9162-7, Ruiz-Jaen, M. C., and Aide, T. M. (2005). Remote Sens. Typically, this can be determined empirically using quantitative (e.g., glass house or common garden experiments; Byars et al., 2007; Browne et al., 2019; Miller et al., 2019a) or correlative (e.g., genomic assessments for genotype x environment associations; Jordan et al., 2017; Miller et al., 2019b) genetic approaches. The financial benefit for this highly successful project, $87 K at $10 MtCO2e−1, defrays ~10% of the restoration cost. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00694.x, Tanner, C. E., and Parham, T. (2010). 137. The movement ecology of seagrasses. Lastly, while seed collection is considered to have less of an impact on donor meadows than collection of shoots, it is still important to understand the impact seed collection might have, especially surrounding how much can be collected without impacting donor meadows and other connected meadows. Community involvement in seagrass conservation is not new, with long term community-based monitoring programs in Queensland (McKenzie et al., 2000) and Western Australia (McKenzie et al., 2017). New Zealand Threat Classification Series 22. “Indigenous Workshop: summary report – promoting collaborative partnerships for sea country research and monitoring in Western Australia,” in Proceedings of the 4th annual Indigenous workshop convened under a partnership between the NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub and the Australian Marine Sciences Association (Fremantle: AMSA Indigenous Workshop Organising Committee). doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00873.x, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Hovey, R. K., and Kendrick, G. A. Res. Review of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in seagrasses. (2019). Conserv. doi: 10.1111/aec.12151, Harley, C. D. G., Hughes, A. R., Hultgren, K. M., Miner, B. G., Sorte, C. J. Genetic diversity enhances restoration success by augmenting ecosystem services. One of the major gaps in knowledge remains our understanding of how to restore tropical species in Australia. Articles. Lett. A combined understanding of the dispersal mechanisms and reproductive biology of seagrasses will add to the overall understanding of spatial and genetic connectivity. Mar. doi: 10.3391/mbi.2017.8.2.03, Danielsen, F., Burgess, N. D., and Balmford, A. Ecosystem 10, 1311–1322. Seagrass meadows at the edge of their range may have lower genetic diversity and higher levels of clonality (e.g., Evans et al., 2014) or have reduced seed production as a result of pollen limitation (e.g., Sinclair et al., in press). Eng. Programs need to be holistic and focus on the landscapes and associated benefits, rather than just a single species. Ecol. Manag. The median cost of seagrass restoration was estimated at USD 106,782 per hectare based on 64 published studies (Bayraktarov et al., 2016), and this can be 10–400 times higher than the costs documented for terrestrial ecosystem restoration (Jacob et al., 2018). Seagrass Restoration: Success, Failure, and the Costs of Both. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.018, Furman, B. T., Merello, M., Shea, C. P., Kenworthy, W. J., and Hall, M. O. (2014). Pollut. 99, 1217–1230. Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-93043-5_15, Williams, S. L. (2001). Mar. U.S.A. 106, 12377–12381. Molec. 25, 162–168. Impacts of oyster reef restoration on primary productivity and nutrient dynamics in tidal creeks of the north central Gulf of Mexico. Mar. Incorporating positive interactions in aquatic restoration and conservation. Seed dispersal in a marine macrophyte: implications for colonization and restoration. Restor. Phycol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02791.x, Kohlmeier, D., Pilditch, C. A., Bornman, J. F., and Bischof, K. (2014). Fish Fish. 2008. Without long-term information, the effectiveness of the restoration methods cannot be assessed accurately, and improvements to the method cannot be made. 144, 2749–2750. However, there are opportunities through the coastal development design phases to incorporate ecological engineering, such as building breakwaters to mimic shallow embayments to enhance the settlement of seagrass seeds, propagules or fragments. Ecol. Monit. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts. Fish. Seagrass Restoration. Matheson, F., and Wadhwa, S. (2012). P. R. Soc. Restor. Rodríguez, J. P., Keith, D. A., Rodríguez-Clark, K. M., Murray, N. J., Nicholson, E., et al. Glob. (2014). Consequently, projections of rising sea surface temperatures and more frequent heatwave events pose a significant risk to both natural and restored seagrass populations (Smale et al., 2019). The effect of storage condition on viability of Enhalus acoroides seedlings. These are often planted directly into the substrate (e.g., Matheson et al., 2017), however, several anchoring techniques have been used to varying degrees of success. Appl. Evol. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00690.x, Byars, S. G., Papst, W., and Hoffmann, A. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.10.041. McKenzie, L. J., Yoshida, R. L., Langlois, L., Rau, J., Weatherall, K., Bishop, F., et al. doi: 10.1126/science.aal1956, Leathwick, J. R., Moilanen, A., Francis, M., Elith, J., and Taylor, P. (2008). Cons. (2015). Matheson, F., Wadhwa, S., Taumoepeau, A., and Smith, J. J. Appl. SAV Technical Notes Collection (ERDC/TN SAV-07-2). Third row left to right: artificial in-water structures (© Peter Macreadie), and collection and use of alternative sources of transplantation (© Harriet Spark). 24, 471–472. Ecol. Plastic pollution of the world’s seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance. Threatened plant translocation case study: Posidonia australis (strapweed), Posidoniaceae. The success of this technique could be due to the addition of iron into the sediment when the nail corrodes. A., Gompert, Z., Nice, C. C., and Sanders, N. J. Among the studies with long-term monitoring, many lack regular monitoring, with a few studies only monitoring at the start and end of the restoration trial (e.g., Connolly et al., 2016). Silver Spring: NOAA. A., Fraser, M. W., Marshall, I. P., Scholz, V. V., and Schmidt, H. (2020b). doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2010.08.005. Losses have also been documented in New Zealand (Park, 1999, 2016; Inglis, 2003; Turner and Schwarz, 2006; Matheson et al., 2011), with one of the more significant examples being the disappearance of 14,100 ha of seagrass from Tauranga Harbor since 1959 (Park, 1999, 2016). 25, 605–617. (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.04.013, Mohring, M. B., Wernberg, T., Wright, J. T., Connell, S. D., and Russell, B. D. (2014). Unlikely nomads: settlement, establishment, and dislodgement processes of vegetative seagrass fragments. (2018). Australia and New Zealand could expand on these existing polices, and learn from other regions which have more proactive policies on marine restoration, such as Living Shorelines (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2015), or from terrestrial ecosystems [e.g., Working for Water South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2019) or the Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (2016)]. Ecol. These losses, and the associated losses in ecosystem goods and services, can have major ecological, socioeconomic, and political ramifications (Smale et al., 2019). Do restored oyster reefs benefit seagrasses? The great barrier reef world heritage area seagrasses: managing this iconic Australian ecosystem resource for the future. Orth, R. J., S. R. Marion, et al. 83, 491–499. (eds.). 102, 125–137. Ecol. Overview of Victoria’s Catchment Management Framework. Assistant Professor Sarah Lester received $365,699 for a research prject titled … Is black swan grazing a threat to seagrass: indications from an observations study in New Zealand. (2015). (2019). Int. Hamilton: NIWAR. Res. What is ecological engineering? (2011). Many of these interactions are currently well-understood, and should be considered and included during restoration. doi: 10.1080/13549839.2019.1590325. These were done in consultation with restoration ecologists to ensure appropriate methods were deployed. Strat. All Rights Reserved ©, A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single, unanchored shoots. 17, 230–237. The nails were uncoated pure iron (not corrosion treated) and corroded within the first year without leaving heavy metals in the sediment. Assessing the benefits and risks of translocations in changing environments: a genetic perspective. Mol. 29, 82–93. Thiodiazotropha oxidizes sulfides in sediments, which can prevent sulfide intrusion, a driver that is known to hinder seagrass recolonization (Fraser and Kendrick, 2017). Seagrass can be a cost effective flooring if you want 100% natural materials. doi: 10.1007/s10021-003-0180-6, Ince, R., Hyndes, G. A., Lavery, P. S., and Vanderklift, M. A. The majority of seagrass restoration trials to date have used shoot-based techniques, with at least 46 studies since 1986 (Supplementary Table S1). doi: 10.1038/s41558-019-0412-1, Smith, T. M., York, P. H., Broitman, B. R., Thiel, M., Hays, G. C., et al. Transplantation as a method for restoring the seagrass Posidonia australis. Experimental transplanting of seagrasses in Botany Bay. Restored Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as a refuge for epifaunal biodiversity in mid-western Atlantic coastal bays. Appl. Long-term trials involving the use of hessian bags placed on the ocean floor to aid natural seedling recruitment started in 2004, with many showing long-term survival (Irving et al., 2010; Tanner, 2015). Coasts 38, 668–678. Seagrasses are important marine ecosystems situated throughout the world’s coastlines. doi: 10.1038/s41559-019-0999-7. B. Proc. Environ. Lett. Silliman, B. R., Schrack, E., He, Q., Cope, R., Santoni, A., van der Heide, T., et al. SAV Technical Notes Collection (ERDC/TN SAV-87-1). 418, 119–130. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2004.09.001, Bulmer, R., Kelly, S., and Jeffs, A. G. (2016). Mar. Mar. J. Exp. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.032, Tuya, F., Vila, F., Bergasa, O., Zarranz, M., Espino, F., and Robaina, R. R. (2017). Trophic cascades in a temperate seagrass community. Ser. Oikos 117, 763–777. Biol. doi: 10.1007/s12237-010-9272-7, Li, M., Lundquist, C. J., Pilditch, C. A., Rees, T. A. V., and Ellis, J. (2011). (2016). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Wear, R. J., Tanner, J. E., and Hoare, S. L. (2010). Bot. Adaptive genetic diversity of trees for forest conservation in a future climate: a case study on Norway spruce in Austria. Res. Seed germination in a southern Australian temperate seagrass. Ecol. Int. (2013). There is therefore a need to facilitate knowledge sharing not only between researchers, but also with industries that have the expertise and knowledge that allows upscaling of seagrass restoration efforts. doi: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.11.005. Sci. Seagrass restoration has a bad rap. Higher seagrass cover and biomass increases sexual reproductive effort: a rare case study of Zostera muelleri in New Zealand. Ecol. A comparison of threats, vulnerabilities and management approaches in global seagrass bioregions. Freshw. Restor. A New Zealand Perspective, eds D. P. Hamilton, K. J. Collier, J. M. Quinn, and C. Howard-Williams (Switzerland: Springer International Publishing), 495–532. 181, 133–149. Nat. Department of Environmental Affairs (2019). (2016). Freshw. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2016.1265993. Impact of hydrodynamics on development and morphology of intertidal seagrasses in the Wadden Sea. (2018). This cost can be greatly reduced by engaging “citizen scientists” or volunteers. Until now! Mar. Accordingly, for many natural resource management agencies that operate at a regional to National scale, we emphasize the importance of adopting strategic prioritization approaches to identify high priority areas to guide conservation and/or restoration efforts. Sci. Gl. Traditionally, restoration policy has advocated the use of local genetic material (known as local provenancing) when undertaking restoration activities (Jordan et al., 2019). Mullard, A.

cost of seagrass restoration

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