Example: Futures Market Arbitrage Opportunity If Spot-Futures Parity Violated. For example, if people hear that a hurricane is coming, they may rush to the store to buy flashlight batteries and bottled water. These are commonly documented in contracts, job descriptions, company policies and performance management documentation such that they may not be captured as a single document. Producers are generally going to be interested in making as much profit as they can. Expectations . When people expect that the value of something will rise, they demand more of it. In theory, expectations can and do affect the supply curve. For example, cash rental decisions should be made with the expectation of mid-$3 corn prices and mid-$9 soybean prices. While it is clear that the price of a good affects the quantity demanded, it is also true that expectations about the future price (or expectations about tastes and preferences, income, and so on) can affect demand. A neighborhood with a very high P/E, like West Hollywood, Calif., where rents trail prices by 30 times, has an expectation of future price increases baked into the cost of buying. For example, suppose a pizzeria lowered prices by $2. Adaptive Expectations: Expectations are formed on the basis of past experiences only, typically as some kind of weighted average of past observations. Expectations . Today's demand can also depend on consumers' expectations of future prices, incomes, prices of related goods and so on. If this spot price materializes, you will not have any profits or losses from your short position in three futures contracts: 3 x ($0.090975 - $0.090975) x … In practice, it probably happens a lot less than it should. Expectations as a Determinant of Supply . For example, consumers demand more of an item today if they expect the price to increase in the future. Just as with demand, expectations about the future determinants of supply, meaning future prices, future input costs and future technology, often impact how much of a product a firm is willing to supply at present. If the futures price is an unbiased predictor of the expected spot price, the expected spot price is the futures price of $0.90975 per 10 MXN. EXAMPLE: To form a forecast for the price of IBM stock in 2005, call it Pe(2005), an investor forms a weighted average of the prices he has observed for shares of IBM in 2004, 2003, and 2002: A shift along the price curve only occurs after a price change in the market. Prices … Housing prices rose, but people kept buying houses because they expected the price to continue to increase. That helps explains the housing asset bubble of 2005. Making decisions with prices in these levels seem prudent. But the oil supply in the U.S. and Mexico is a poor example. The following are illustrative examples of performance expectations. Projections presented above suggest a continuation of roughly these price levels into the foreseeable future. Performance expectations are requirements of an employee including expected results, behavior and actions.