Date. A Bluetooth-based tracking system is proposed and evaluated with the location fingerprinting technique to incorporate the Bluetooth properties described in the chapter. 105–122. The introduction is supported by consensus found in the selected surveys and referenced using them. UbiComp 2005. We apply our protocol in multiple indoors wireless sensor testbeds with multiple experimental scenarios to showcase scalability and trade-offs between network properties and configurable protocol parameters. La première présente les technologies PAN et WAN, l’état de l’art des méthodes de Wireless Physical Tracking et les contre mesures adoptés. RADAR operates by recording and processing signal strength information Location has proven to be an important source of contextual information for such systems. This application shows that TM has the potential to support a traditional GIS to analyse interval-based geographical data. Proceedings, vol. Location tracking is Our framework is unsupervised, requires no labeled data and is able to discover new activities as data grows. In the legacy system, the interaction requires certain explicit configuration from the user. It is meaningful to design a strategy to roughly localize mobile phones without a GPS by exploiting existing conditions and devices especially in environments without GPS availability (e.g., tunnels, subway stations, etc.). La deuxième partie présentent les contributions de la thèse qui visent à proposer de nouvelles méthodes de suivi, analyser les performances de celles-ci face aux méthodes existantes et dans le cas particulier de l’application de crowd-localisation, à proposer des méthodes de suivi respectueuse de la vie privée. The Bluetooth specification describes a robust and powerful technology for short-range wireless communication. Over the past year, approximately 50 staff members have used the system daily with a set of trial applications, Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies. We also report lessons learned from experimenting with the Horus system and provide directions for future work. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. We will discuss algorithms that help reducing the number of active devices needed in a network, while maintaining a comparable localization accuracy compared to the "full" network. The SELFLOC algorithm infers the user location by selectively fusing location information from multiple wireless technologies and/or multiple classical location algorithms in a theoretically optimal manner. Weibull distribution improves the performance of fingerprinting. We have instrumented at a fine-grained level and present our findings which show that (i) the energy consumed by the electronics of a drive is just as important as the mechanical energy consumption; (ii) the energy required to access data is affected by physical location on a drive; and (iii) the size of data transfers has measurable effect on power consumption. So, if you set up a network of tags on your remote, keys, dog, purse then you would be able to find all of your devices. Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability. We relate the experience gained in applying the location stack abstractions to the design and implementation of a location system using three separate location technologies integrated in a wireless computer. participants). In: ICT 2003: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Telecommunications, vol. In this paper we present the implementation of a secure, non-invasive continuous authentication scheme supported by the use of Wearable Wireless Devices (WWD), which allow users to gain access to proximity-based services while preserving their privacy. By detecting when the foot is stationary and applying zero velocity corrections a pedestrian’s relative movements can be tracked far more accurately than is possible using uncorrected inertial navigation. On the micro With the position of GPS-equipped phones as beacons and with the Bluetooth connections between neighbor phones as constraints, we formulate the problem as an optimization problem defined on the Bluetooth network. It combines empirical measurements with signal propagation modeling to determine user location and thereby enable location-aware services and applications. performances. We conclude that Bluetooth tracking is a viable approach, but that certain technological and practical aspects need to be considered when applying Bluetooth tracking in new cases. We have been exploring the possibility of building applications that present user interfaces pervasively distributed across different co-located devices. creating user-oriented applications and extending the sensing capabilities This thesis takes place in a context with over 600 Bluetooth detectors installed in the City of Brisbane. In: MASCOTS 2008: Proceedings of the 16th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (2008), International Symposium on Location- and Context-Awareness, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, findings and the potential and limitations of the used method. the area of interest. We explore how sensor systems installed in many buildings today can be used to apportion energy consumption between users. In this paper, we tackle the latter issue in a different direction, with a new conformal prediction algorithm to enhance the accuracy of the prediction. Of particular interest for many ubiquitous computing systems is the ability to track people in indoor environments. LBS provide location-specific information that are based data acquired through GPS, enabling such services to, Current implementations of the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) use a static value determined from the Media Access Control (MAC) address as the host portion, or interface identifier (IID), of the IPv6 address. Le suivi des utilisateurs via les informations fortuitement émises par leurs périphériques sans fil se nomme le Wireless Physical Tracking. S. Hay, and R. Harle. Intelligence about the spatio-temporal behaviour of individuals is valuable in many settings. Wireless devices can also serve as a supporting technology for continuous authentication or even as a complete alternative to biometrics when accessing proximity-based services. interactions. Some implementations create the IID using the MAC unobscured, while others compute a onetime hash value involving the MAC. Sentient computing systems, which can change their behaviour based on a model of the environment they construct using sensor data, may hold the key to managing tomorrow's device-rich mobile networks. Our evaluation results show that using Bluetooth beacons help to improve signal map growth, while maintaining reasonable localization accuracy. meta-information about music genres, band origins, stages, and dates of In: Naccache, D. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, easing deployment and maintenance. The hardware implementation architecture of the proposed neural network is also given in this article. Exploiting the advantages of wireless communication protocols is not only for telecommunication purposes, but also for payments, interaction with intelligent vehicles, etc. For an observational dataset, gathered by mobile phones, we We handle the common indoor signal attenuation issue, which introduces errors into the training database, with a reliability measurement for our prediction. The non-negativity and sparsity of factors are enforced by using the exponential distribution to generate the factors. This paper studies the use of received signal strength indicators (RSSI) applied to fingerprinting method in a Bluetooth network for indoor positioning. A key issue is the automatic distribution of user interface (UI) components among co-located devices. This way object binding is realised. We exploit proximity between Bluetooth devices attached to people and objects for estimating 1) room-level proximity of people and objects, and 2) mutual proximity between moving people and objects. Understanding Music Festival Participant Behavior, Bayesian Fusion for Indoor Positioning Using Bluetooth Fingerprints, Motion Restricted Information Filter for Indoor Bluetooth Positioning, Inquiry-Based Bluetooth Indoor Positioning via RSSI Probability Distributions, Potential and Implications of Bluetooth Proximity- Based Tracking in Moving Object Research, Home Automation Using SSVEP & Eye-Blink Detection Based Brain-Computer Interface, Pedestrian localisation for indoor environments. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, easing deployment and maintenance. Fingerprints of received signal strength indicators (RSSI) are used for localization. The client devices are continually scanning for other adjacent Bluetooth devices, this information is sent to the server where the client device position is estimated, based on the other adjacent Bluetooth devices, which are located through other means. 3660, pp. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Evaluating target-tracking protocols for wireless sensor networks that can localise multiple mobile assets can be a very challenging task. : Place lab: Device positioning using radio beacons in the wild. In this paper we present RADAR, a radio-frequency (RF) based system for locating and tracking users inside buildings. To tackle this problem, in this paper, we investigate the position inference of phones without GPS according to Bluetooth connectivity and positions of beacon phones. CDMA networks vary their transmission power to accommodate fluctuations in network load. The hardware implementation of the proposed neural network is also explored in this paper. In: MobiSys 2005: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services (June 2005), Anastasi, G., Bandelloni, R., Conti, M., Delmastro, F., Gregori, E., Mainetto, G.: Experimenting an indoor Bluetooth-based positioning service. The design, implementation and experimentation of this new protocol along with further optimisations were performed using the WISEBED framework. If the user is unfamiliar with the IT technology, it will be impossible to get the wanted service. To be widely adopted, location-aware computing must be as effortless, familiar and rewarding as web search tools like Google. Designing a Framework to Support the Development of Smart Cross-device Applications, Beacon Deployment for Unambiguous Positioning, Comparative Analysis of Location Based Positioning Systems, Bluetooth tracking of humans in an indoor environment: An application to shopping mall visits, Applications of Secure Location Sensing in Healthcare, Link Dependent Origin-Destination Matrix Estimation : Nonsmooth Convex Optimisation with Bluetooth-Inferred Trajectories, Using Inquiry-based Bluetooth RSSI Probability Distributions for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation, Real-Time Localization using Software Defined Radio, Bluetooth in Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Survey, Information-Filter-Assisted-Indoor-Bluetooth-Positioning, Interactive analysis of time intervals in a two-dimensional space, A Meta-Review of Indoor Positioning Systems, Adaptive Hierarchical Network Structures for Wireless Sensor Networks, The Development of Occupancy Monitoring for Removing Uncertainty within Building Energy Management Systems, Bluetooth Aided Mobile Phone Localization: A Nonlinear Neural Circuit Approach, Dynamic Object Binding for Opportunistic Localisation, Neural network based mobile phone localization using Bluetooth connectivity, Reliable indoor location prediction using conformal prediction, Evaluation of Bluetooth Properties for Indoor Localisation, Fixed-lag particle filter for continuous context discovery using Indian Buffet Process, Ambient Assisted Living [Guest editors' introduction], Protocol Design for Opportunistic Direct M2M Communication in Wearable Computing Environment, An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption, Design and Analysis of a Bluetooth-Based Indoor Localization System, Dynamic optimization of Bluetooth networks for indoor localization, The Horus WLAN location determination system, Challenge: Ubiquitous Location-Aware Computing and the "Place Lab" Initiative, Indoor localization based on response rate of bluetooth inquiries, An Inexpensive Bluetooth-Based Indoor Positioning Hack, Bluetooth-based Indoor Proximity Sensing for Nursing Context Awareness, Robust indoor location estimation of stationary and mobile users, Indoor location estimation using multiple wireless technologies, Experimenting an indoor bluetooth-based positioning service, Challenge: ubiquitous location-aware computing and the "place lab" initiative, An analysis of hard drive energy consumption, RADAR: An in-building RF-based user location and tracking system, The Anatomy of a Context-Aware Application, The potential for location-aware power management, A Study of Bluetooth Propagation Using Accurate Indoor Location Mapping, Place Lab: Device Positioning Using Radio Beacons in the Wild, The use of Bluetooth in Linux and location aware computing /, Real-world implementation of the location stack: The universal location framework, Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing, Crowdsourcing for Context: Regarding Privacy in Beacon Encounters via Contextual Integrity, The privacy implications of stateless IPv6 addressing, Protecting trajectory privacy: A user-centric analysis, Conference: Location and Context Awareness, 4th International Symposium, LoCA 2009, Tokyo, Japan, May 7-8, 2009, Proceedings. We can use this model to write programs that react to changes in the environment according to the user's preferences. Users. Computer (January 2001), Addlesee, M., Curwen, R., Hodges, S., Newman, J.F., Steggles, P., Ward, A., Hopper, A.: Implementing a sentient computing system. 2009. In this paper, the use of TM in visualising and analysing time intervals is investigated. Conference Paper. In this paper we present a study of sensing and analyzing an offline social It describes how these concepts can be implemented in the GNU/Linux operating system using the BlueZ Bluetooth protocol stack and libraries. Results show that our approach was effective in helping users label beacons according to the specific context of a given beacon encounter, as well as the privacy perceptions associated with it. (RF)-based system for locating and tracking users inside buildings. AAL systems go beyond observing to interact with users. This paper studies the use of received signal strength indicators (RSSI) applied to fingerprinting method in a Bluetooth network for indoor positioning. Both the research community and developers in industry have identified the need for a clearly defined vocabulary and programming framework for location technologies. This problem is challenging because of the stream nature of data, the complexity and changing nature of contexts. Endowing a system with predictive capability lets it anticipate and thereby produce a timely and useful response. OD matrix is a two-entry table taking census of the zone-to-zone traffic of a geographic area. Datasets that capture this The results presented here are positive and very promising. --Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. The platform is particularly suitable for richly equipped, networked environments. However, Bluetooth tracking systems to date have relied on the Bluetooth … For example, this snippet sets the duration to 300: To do this they need to be able to sense their surroundings and infer context about the state of the world. In: WMCSA 2004: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. The discovered factors have similar meaning to the results of the popular Louvain method for community detection. Meanwhile, Blue- tooth is increasingly widely deployed due to its low power consumption and cost. festival participants form. We conclude that the technique is a viable alternative to inquiry-based Bluetooth tracking. wireless networks has fostered a growing interest in location-aware The MBP is paired with two things: A set of AirPods Pro and an MX Master 2S. Indoor … In: INFOCOM 2004. The first vulnerability opens up the system to an attack in which an adversary under certain circumstances is able to determine the key exchanged by two victim devices, making eavesdropping and impersonation possible. There exists a dilemma between the relatively high price of GPS devices and the dependence of location information acquisition on GPS for most phones in current stage. These various services are implemented by the interactions between the wearable device and the user. PDF document, by Simon Hay and Robert Harle. The rise of Bluetooth-equipped devices in personal consumer electronics and in in-car systems has revealed the potential to develop Bluetooth sensor systems for applications in intelligent transportation systems. interactions. S. Feldmann, K. Kyamakya, A. Zapater, and Z. Lue. The aim is to enable continuous monitoring of areas where a person moves. We show that the proximity information exchanged between several devices can be updated at a rate of more than 1 Hz by effectively choosing the timing parameters of Bluetooth inquiry mechanism. Abstract. Unfortunately, the specification is immense and complicated, presenting a formidable challenge for novice developers. Pairing the Tile Pro is fast and straightforward, and comes with the ability to name the device based upon what it's tracking (e.g., “keys”). Further, the role of link-strength is investigated in relation to social network properties. In the last few years several localization and tracking systems for indoor environment have been proposed. We point to three types of potential vulnerabilities in the Bluetooth standard, version 1.0B. We demonstrate a radio beacon-based approach to location, called Place Lab, that can overcome the lack of ubiquity and high-cost found in existing location sensing approaches. All rights reserved. It makes use of high-accuracy location data collected over 60 days randomly selected from a year in a commercial envi- ronment to evaluate the potential for energy savings and to motivate techniques that might be used. LBS are divided into three nonexclusive categories, such as requests for things or information about existing location, receiving alerts, and tracking individuals or groups. Yet inexpensive, pervasive positioning—a requirement for wide-scale adoption of location-aware computing—has been elusive. By analysis of the real world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the clustering problem, regarding adapting to environmental conditions and the quality of topology control. In closing, we provide evidence in support of the location stack's usefulness and we make some recommendations for its potential evolution. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2005. These detectors permit in-car Bluetooth device detection and thus vehicle identification.This manuscript explores first, the potentialities of Bluetooth detectors for Transport Engineering applications by characterising the data, their noises and biases. The analyses of the meta-review contributed with insights on the abundance and academic significance of published IPS proposals using the criterion of the number of citations. Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability. how to highlight important interactions. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, … Additionally, a static IID provides a means to correlate network traffic with a specific user. is developed for this purpose and is applied to track pedestrians using foot-mounted inertial sensors. The availability of Bluetooth devices for most phones and the existence of a number of GPS equipped phones in a crowd of phone users enable us to design a Bluetooth aided mobile phone localization strategy. (eds.) Les interfaces sans fil de ces objets connectés émettent périodiquement des informations, certaines sont spécifiques aux utilisateurs et permettent par effet de bord d’identifier et de suivre leur déplacements. In android, Bluetooth is a communication network protocol, which allow a devices to connect wirelessly to exchange the data with other Bluetooth devices. Research in the AAL community covers a wide range of topics, but one of the largest is human activity recognition and behavior understanding, with the objectives of detecting and recognizing actions, activity, and situations within an environment. Most Bluetooth trackers require very little power, but only a few come with a replaceable battery. The scanned devices are typically on-board vehicular electronics and consumer devices carried by the driver and/or passengers which use Bluetooth communications, and which then reasonably proxy for the vehicle itself. The proliferation of mobile computing devices and local-area wireless networks has fostered a growing interest in location-aware systems and services. Thus, the model describes the world much as users themselves would. Treating the current state of the environment as common ground between computers and users provides new ways of interacting with information systems. Summarizing, 3 models are possible: BLE beacons can be used either to trigger (contextual) proximity actions, to obtain indoor location or to perform real-time tracking. make such a system work in practice are described. By receiving the beacon coverage status from a user's device, the cloud server can unambiguously pinpoint the user's location and react correspondingly. In: INFOCOM 2000. Empirical tests show that these requirements hold. In order to correctly use Bluetooth for object binding, some important features like operating range, influence of obstacles and scan time are analysed. By analysis of the real-world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the target tracking problem, regarding power consumption and the quality of tracking information. Simulations on such protocols are performed using theoretical models that are based on unrealistic assumptions like the unit disk graph communication model, ideal wireless communication channels and perfect energy consumption estimations. The main advantage is that this reduces the need for network planning, which reduces the costs of operating the system. One solution, The significance of location-based services (LBS) continues to grow due to their ability to provide information about physical location in libraries. This thesis explains Bluetooth programming in the context of Internet programming and shows how most concepts in Internet programming are easily translated to Bluetooth. There are security and privacy risks such as device tracking, communication eavesdropping, etc., which may come from improper Bluetooth implementation with very severe consequences for the users. Additionally we devise an improved scheme that circumvents some of the limitations of our implementation. On the macro level, we employ an Infinite Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability 123 Ideally, then, Bluetooth tracking would not involve the inquiry process nor require any device to be permanently discoverable. table fan using brain signals has also been discussed and state-of-the-art Another advantage is that it reduces the amount of energy used by the network and the mobile devices being located. We highlight the significance of wide fin- gerprints, constructed through scanning multiple channels, for achieving high localization accuracy. stationary or moving. In this paper, proximity-based Bluetooth tracking is postulated as an efficient and effective methodology for analysing the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of visitor movements at mass events. It uses location-clustering techniques to reduce the computational requirements of the algorithm. These include triangulation, which uses multiple distance measurements between known points; proximity measuring nearness to a known set of points; and scene analysis, which examines a view from a particular vintage point. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. Tags android bluetooth dblp discoverability tracking venus. Three different ways of positioning with Bluetooth have been developed. This permits tracking of a previously identified handset within a field of fixed base stations. One of the most widespread wireless capabilities is the Bluetooth protocol. Speed detection is assisted to correct the outliers of position estimation. We publish our data sets of signal strength samples for the community to freely use in future research. May 2009; Simon Hay. The lightweight Horus algorithm helps in supporting a larger number of users by running the algorithm at the clients.We discuss the different components of the Horus system and its implementation under two different operating systems and evaluate the performance of the Horus system on two testbeds. Many different techniques are already fused in the opportunistic localisation system, since Bluetooth is integrated in almost all mobile devices, this sensor will be incorporated in the opportunistic localisation fusion algorithm. A wide variety of applications can benefit from indoor Bluetooth tracking. Current indoor localisation systems make use of common wireless signals such as Bluetooth, WiFi to track the users inside a building. As these networks grow in size and complexity, their management becomes increasingly costly, for instance in terms of equipment, software, and people. PERVASIVE 2005. Instant and precise localization of a mobile user is fundamental for supporting various sophisticated indoor location-aware services. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere.
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