BACKGROUND Mercerizationis a process in which textiles (typical- ly cotton) are treated with a caustic (NaOH) solution to improve properties such as fiber strength, shrink- age resistance, luster, and dye affinity. In the present study, the influence of the mercerization process on the acid hydrolysis of sisal pulp was evaluated. The contaminated dilute NaOH from this process is purified by filtration process. In the original process of Mercer, no tension was applied. Finishing Machines and Process. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. trailer << /Size 132 /Info 101 0 R /Root 103 0 R /Prev 1329046 /ID[<6fb00626958a778daec47cc725731770><6fb00626958a778daec47cc725731770>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 103 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 100 0 R /PageMode /UseThumbs /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 104 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 105 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 130 0 obj << /S 108 /T 232 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 131 0 R >> stream The caustic actually rearranges the cellulose molecules in the fiber to produce these changes. The objectives of this study were:(i)to determine the optimum conditions under which cotton-man-made cellulosic blends can bemercerized, and (ii)to study the influence of mercerization and degree of stretch on the - Chemical, exothermic chemical per … 0000002353 00000 n In dry mercerization, the process is carried out while drying the fabric on a stenter. 1.5.1 Mercerization . Using this process dyes are better able penetrate the fibers. John Mercer invented a process which gives cotton a lustre resembling silk - a process known as 'mercerization'. 3 0 obj 2. In the case of alkali cellulose crumb, such process may comprise, for example, conveying of such crumb on a belt conveyor through an RF mercerization chamber, in the course of which the degree of polymerization of the alkali cellulose may be reduced, for example, from about 700-1000 to approximately 300-450, just as in the two stage continuous sheet steeping process of the parent … <> In this investigation, a selection of three common yarn patterns (2/9.5, 984 and 3/8) was subjected to different mercerization experiments under factory conditions, to optimize the caustic soda concentration for highest quality and economic impact. It was found that the filtrated solution from gravel-sand was suitable to be reused NaOH. The reused NaOH has a pH of 11.89, turbidity of 1.5 NTU, and 2 M concentration. Pilot-plant was constructed in textile industry for reused NaOH. The process, which may be applied at the yarn or fabric stage, involves immersion under tension in a caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) solution, which is later neutralized in acid. x��VKo�0�9����@�Zr;�=�:,�u7�[cN��I��#)ٖ���H�ȏ�GZ�G�4�>+PJ�2�4=�n��{�ͱ���X�RE0[��3�M��ss���� np^�z-��_0�Fm�ݚР��D cÈ�Η�XK�ш�aK0F�h�����*�����r�-7~����2 �2 Another characteristic feature is the untwisting (deconvolution) of the cotton hair. mercerization, 75% is on linking’s side through the force of pull. The Mercerizing Process it 'a chemical-physical treatment applied to the polymer chain of cellulose fibers, such as cotton, linen, hemp and all their compositions where the cellulosic fibers are prevalent in the formation of the yarn. Mercerization was discovered by John Mercer and the process is named 0000001469 00000 n The cold mercerization process which carries handling thread or cloth. Mercerization is a process that makes cotton take dye better and increases its luster! This process, patented by the same Mercier, in 1850, took the name of mercerization of cotton. B��)��c��$]�;v��(�����1� ���K}J���J��N}QթB�F�óW�"�������g�F�F(�%�����@�8D�ЋRj)�C/y�;�No���;��x共E�+ l'`�; $ �0j��YkaD�:��i$^�����1f�]�5���ƙz��IR틊mTi�h�8�s��c��\��9�j��=M\lK9��_�m�7�}���N>V��n�~�hk�{�)��Z*e>m�J{G-N��QN�Tw��?������^#���3\CG�! 0000006436 00000 n This increases the luster while also strengthening the thread. Mercerization 1. 0000007471 00000 n <> To under- stand the mechanism of mercerization, we need more detailed knowledge on the nature of the alkali-swollen state of cellulose. The mercerization is a chemical-physical treatment. The five structures could be generated reproducibly by slowing down the mercerization process, and it was shown that their interconversions followed definite paths which depended on the concentration of the alkali. Fabric becomes stronger and smoother. Moghassem and Valipour investigated the ee cts of four mercerization treat-mentparameters,namely,alkaliconcentration,timeoftreat- ment, bath temperature, and mercerization … Natural fibers and their composites. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2015 , 53 , 189-195. Decol – 1 gpl. Singeing Process Sequence; Yarn Singeing; Desizing; Oxidative desizing; Scouring. T�@��S�@؉~��n\�y�(.���X����bE��@q(�������$R�+,�է�i>��'�Ҡ�| �CP)=���j���1R����S��A)�p'�g7�N'I��I�Ŀ��K_�Ǥ�_@�_����wcֱ@��T���e)TT��rP�0]�^�m[�ZyVAWK��f�V���X)�ւϭ�҆���W;Q߅�LçAv=���]��� �oˠ�U�o���v��.����o �� $����\GS}H����mI.��;j����_�%9�-)TlI�4p["�h�:�)f�g@s����J��ǁ��\K|�%o@K�?��@r���I�Az�Bz�Cz��_ �wį���q'V�`��X=ϥ�ŧħ�g�����W�O�O��ģ���1��K�+�!ek���J���b�xD�H������5���k�¼�|�}��m����28㌱AA��� Effective mercerization requires the use of wetting agents. ^,�(�@� $v ��J?M�4��T�t��4M�KC*�( Meagre quantitative information on these aspects is available in literature. This reused NaOH can be added to 6 M concentration. stream 'gʥ�F�Vnڌ�ףB����.$��D�Fִ����e�y ������L&�x�dj܈�w!qP���h��N0ERg��#�q(k�zo��gY��ԥl�\�=�hw\[��֥a��M�8�����8�i6zu��~o�R?֣Gj���rc;�c�}O����Ԡe���^��X�||k��Z_���X+�ʨ������:b`��������'�Cpi�/ں�p8ʩ�T�֣�MEܞ�����Zi�|ә6�^O]�L��_U'��W������;Y_�����Y� Here we have the whole process of mercerization. In 1889 Horace Lowe discovered the additional effect of enhancing the lustre by stretching the swollen materials while wet with caustic alkali and then washing off. process and the method of washing away the alkali. The improved lustre of mercerised cotton is due to the production of nearly circular cotton fibres under tension. The temperature is kept at 60°C for all applications. Keywords: recovery, caustic soda, mercerization, ceramic membrane, combined membrane filtration 1 INTRODUCTION General industrial textile processes consist of pretreatment, desizing, scouring, … Mercerization is a treatment of cotton with a strong alkali solution in order to improve luster, dimensional stability, dye affinity, chemical reactivity, tensile strength, and smoothness of the cotton fabrics. Fabric is passed through a solution which contains 23% NaOH at room temperature. of mercerized cellulose II. Download PDF Info Publication number US1482076A. Mercerization is a pre-treatment or finishing treatment of cellulosic materials with higher concentrated Alkali (NaOH) for short period at lower temperature. Mercerizing also gives cotton cloth increased tensile strength, greater absorptive properties, and, usually, a … Mercerization gives cotton a high luster^ makes it easier to dye^ and Mercerpro- duces brighter and fuller shades. �*�V@.Y@U�d)�z86�0���(5���ԡw=�4�j#J�4�S>����jG�\�ħ.ޫ#�+�J�< K��2���z�����Nt�@� t�lE�^�ޝNV�,'6^�B.#Y������8���T�P���~7�"���P���qo��i��*BM�UŠ�h Meagre quantitative information on these aspects is available in literature. Merecerization treatment for cotton yarn fibers is very essential process to increase the luster, tensile strength and enhancement their dyability. In water trough required water is supplied for caustic. Mechanism of mercerization and effect of different parameters on mercerization At first fabric is hanked by the roller in a J-Box. It was found that reused NaOH is good efficient when compared with new 6 M NaOH solution. Introduction to mercerization: Mercerization was found by John Mercer in 1844 of England, who treated cotton fibers with NaOH. In Tribology of Natural Fiber Polymer Composites, 2008. In the traditional mercerization process, cotton yarn or fabric is treated with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), which converts the native type I cellulose to type II. 20-25 % caustic soda solution at a heat between 160 C and 20°C.and after treatment for 30-180 sec; the materials wash to … ��g4��p�Z�����K�^䱹�S��L LA h����ADv��b��� ����l x��|[E�/>s���,�r�l�w[�e˖{�=�c�wR!� ! Combined scouring and desizing, The use of ammonia in mercerization has been known since the 1930’s and was developed commercially for fabric processing around 1970 in what was originally known as the Tedesco process, which was subsequently acquired by the Sanforized company and made well-known as the Sanfor-Set®process.The fashion appeal of so-called “flat-finish” denim resulting from Japanese ammonia … of mercerized cellulose II. 2 7 Combined preparatory processes Need for combined proceeses. 0000010644 00000 n The high hollowness of fiber makes it possess excellent moisture absorption and warmth capability3. Download as PDF. United States Patent 4520520 ... Download PDF 4520520 PDF help. The effect of mercerization process on the structural and morphological properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) pulp Nadirul Hasraf Mat Nayan, Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman* and Rohah Abdul Majid Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical … By: Brannon Smith: Single Mercerization is a process in which the yarn used to make a shirt is run through the middle of an open flame at a very high speed. 0000010602 00000 n (sometimes NH3, LiOH or KOH being used) The process did not become popular until Horace. Mercerization Process Produces Quality Fabrics. PDF | The effect of different mercerization techniques on tactile comfort properties of woven cotton fabric has been studied. The permeated caustic solution can be reused, which could offer economical benefits through the reduction of chemical use and the cost of wastewater treatment. 5 Mercerization Mercerization of cotton with sodium hydroxide and liquid ammonia, process parameters, effect on fibre structure and properties. Then fabric is squeezed by the squeezed roller and washing is done in a bath at 85 degree Celsius. Chemical because it occurs for exothermic chemical reaction in the cellulose chain through a caustic fluid (preferably sodium hydroxide, but it is also possible with lithium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and other caustic) this reaction causes a physical change in the structure of the polymer also permanent. Mercerization, the treatment of cotton with a strong caustic alkaline solution in order to improve the luster, hand and other properties, was named after its discoverer, John Mercer, and has been in use for some time. Theeuwen 3 and Andrea Mele 1,2,* ... cellulose (wood cellulose from the kraft vs. sulfite process, WCK vs. WCS) on the conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II (CII%) during mercerization. Mercerization is a process to clean and prepare fabrics for bleaching and dyeing. The process was devised about 1844 by John Mercer who treated cotton with solutions of 55–65 ° Twaddell scale (20–30%) sodium hydroxide followed by washing. 2 7 Combined preparatory processes Need for combined proceeses. Kapok 0000005421 00000 n In this mercerizing process fiber become untwists and swells, lumen becomes rounder in cross-section and it gains luster. Fabric is passed for 4-5 minutes. stream Purification of bacterial cellulose through mercerization process was conducted to increase its mechanical strength so that the 14e������G8/�CUW�. 4 0 obj 102 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 105 /H [ 1140 351 ] /L 1331216 /E 107114 /N 6 /T 1329057 >> endobj xref 102 30 0000000016 00000 n It was successful for the treatment effluent from mercerization process. Introduction to bleaching; Bleaching of cellulosic fibres with NaOCl; Bleaching with sodium chlorite; Bleaching with hydrogen peroxide; Mercerization. Dyed cloth too undyed cloth were mercerized, too detailed comparing of a procedure parameter of tensile strength, sodium hydroxide concentration, Brightness value, temperature, wet regains. ~4'~5 The mercerization process, however, involves interaction with alkali and water mol- ecules that are not considered in simulations. @��-��������0z� z�/"�U���Ԁ�v�#�%}K��cd�t��J'Hx�/�����}?zߏ���8�{�q ��{��V�� Z@�gx�ljc-Z��_h�8Z=�V��VMpH��@�"Z�N����p�Z\yW�ŕ����B�C���!�$�$�$�$���B�FJI:^����E\$�6|���&�"�5\ɂLHޫ�55��ԒRG�I=^ ��4�4G3ڴ�s+� m�G;F�@�N�.|���i�ԃ�}��t�H�y���:�3� ~���H������%)�"���W�-�fh@�'�|E5Q(f�r�YFV �'stN�*�.���Ց���CA1���2�K��r`X 0000008447 00000 n applied mercerization process on cotton fabrics with three dierent weaving patterns using three dierent time peri-ods and three dierent processes under factory conditions to examine the dimension stability [ ]. Mercerisation is an industrial process involving sodium hydroxide for cotton yarns or fabrics to increase the lustre and dyeability. 0000003441 00000 n 0000002331 00000 n Mercerizing process consists in treatment of cellulosic materials with concentrated solutions of caustic soda at a temperature of 15 to 18°C. 0000008570 00000 n ... of t he fibres in the fabric d uring swelling process 11. Mercerization is carried out on yarns, fabrics or open or tubular knits. H�b```g``)a`e`x�� ̀ ��l,X e��|��e]�o�K endstream Mercerised cellulose is hydrated cellulose, i.e., a product which from the chemical point of view is identical to the original cellulose, but differing from it in physical properties. Q&->��'���VB�I�¾p�I_���Q�S��y�Ѳ{�|#?-Gj~?����z�>�H�X�ų� ��(�q�3>�S�����Г�=s��؝K�@�h8G K&�+��J9dw��i4wt(�,82�L���̒����m�kNH�Xɦ�T 8���$l�y�Q���=朎�^��#�utB^�4�Yz���.kl�m��{����Q�z��"17����U@�І�@]u����m��K��-�w^���_�����)u��s�W�k�':g�E:�ʪ� ����j�a�n7����'j���u��l��Ӗ#顯���A�+ֱ��t��! ��/�s �!��Tj㬂 O�#�qH��ˆ���R&�K����c��{� �>�zOz{�3�.¿�����N$8�����8/ĥX��+�5+���$�^�{ŧ�[�n�+�)y�H�8+P˒�X+ ���|�D�o�����Q��5ݱ�Z\��]�@�j�V"B����-�nf�]��'l�A�;�%K�� >���?�T�HwQb�|4^�|M�bH�'F�D�F����� Mercerization are two types: 1. 5 Mercerization Mercerization of cotton with sodium hydroxide and liquid ammonia, process parameters, effect on fibre structure and properties. 0000004419 00000 n Mercerizing is a continuous process. 1. Analysis of mercerization process based on the intensity change of deconvoluted resonances of 13C CP/MAS NMR: Cellulose mercerized under cooling and non-cooling conditions. Mercerization process: Caustic sol – 150gpl. 0000006458 00000 n Dye affinity and chemical reactivity increase. When applied according to the development perfected in England by Horace Arthur Lowe (1869-1930) from Heaton Moor in Lancaster, who in 1889 filed 2 patents, then resumed and developed by the Germans Thomas and Prevost in Krefeld (North Rhine -Westphalia). When liquid ammonia is used instead of sodium hydroxide, cellulose is converted to type III. 6 0 obj QWNI – 4 gpl. mercerization process. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. A short but efficient saturation step provides a 98% complete mercerization of the cotton. Mercerization, a textile process named after its inventor, the English chemist John Mercer (1791-1866), was first developed in 1844. Mercerizing Definition : It is a treatment for cotton articles and/or natural fibres composed by cellulose in a concentrated solution of caustic soda (300 g/l), under tension and ambient temperature. mercerization process. 7 0 obj Mercerization or sometimes referred to as alkali treatment is the process of subjecting a cellulose fiber to an interaction with a relatively concentrated aqueous solution of a strong base [13], with the objective of producing sufficient swelling, thus, resulted in a reduction of linear density, shrinkage in dimension and more visible fibrillar 0000002091 00000 n Cellulose Mercerization Monica Ferro 1,*, Alberto Mannu 1, Walter Panzeri 2, Con H.J. 4 6 Optical whitening agents Chemistry and application of Optical whitening agents, Mechanism of action. Fabric is passed for 4-5 minutes. ^n�2�'��������HgTnt�%+&!�'�G��q3�$f%�%ǥ��Z҄�/���Pe�͸=�Pfe�c�Od���q�wY$+,˒��U�U��4뜬�YCY�g��z"륬w��e}y�#�i��(�w�� ����}T_'�j�t��k.���N��p/ɗ>���g�Ir����̒HJ5fE ��Q���q=���z. 0000004441 00000 n It has been seeing an increase in … John Mercer (1791-1866) 5. Physico-chemical properties of bacterial cellulose enable to be used as matrix in producing artificial bone material. Mercer observed that the treated fabrics shrank, had increased tensile strength, and an increased affinity for dyes. <> 0000001840 00000 n 1 0 obj 0000008592 00000 n US4520520A US06/462,909 US46290983A US4520520A US 4520520 A US4520520 A US 4520520A US 46290983 A US46290983 A US 46290983A US 4520520 A US4520520 A US 4520520A Authority US 0000009585 00000 n Mercerization. To under- stand the mechanism of mercerization, we need more detailed knowledge on the nature of the alkali-swollen state of cellulose. 0000001076 00000 n stream ���C.�n��&�fX�AS9�R���� �2�9�� $ )'��I1�R4�KC.UPU �����h���4�ģD4=@S�Ȧ h����A�K19D.�%�*���\ 0000001140 00000 n Mercerization is the process of treating cotton thread in a caustic solution (usually sodium hydroxide) under tension, which causes the fibers to swell. endstream A previous paper addressed the hydrolysis of sisal pulp using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. 0000010668 00000 n It was originally developed and patented by a man named John Mercer in 1844. 0000002211 00000 n �)�k�,��~�����cH�����8���p�GQV�0Ok��S��t�S{�#�:��F�hlP�9�!tf���2�~���3�$��(��Gh��wJN�~���KY_���8�����*=/BBɟ���!��O(q�,�iꣶs%�d������S�D�)"+*���A�b�x��4f=��-��Bțؿ���p�ڈ˓P&:����c�;�X+{�eو�r �G�)�mQt�Nm%�^ZB�nnc!T��������B���\��ne1,����>�MG�λu8��y�N��+|4��]7�^��#���5�����t�d[�����,�B������ UOr h�`j�)G��������!�4��{��~nj�r�^��XU]�� Mercerization is carried out on yarns, fabrics or open or tubular knits. But the mercerisation of denim is usually carried out after the denim is woven, and so it is different from the more common method of mercerising cotton yarn. US1482076A US616606A US61660623A US1482076A US 1482076 A US1482076 A US 1482076A US 616606 A US616606 A US 616606A US 61660623 A US61660623 A US 61660623A US 1482076 A US1482076 A US 1482076A Authority US United States Prior art keywords fabric thiocyanate treatment alkali solution Prior art date 1923-02-02 … The disadvantages stemming from a high content of hemicellulose in recirculated sodium hydroxide solutions used for the mercerization of cellulose in the preparation of viscose are reduced or eliminated by subjecting at least a part of the spent sodium hydroxide solution to an ultrafiltration process to remove part or all of the hemicellulose therein. A typical mercerizing process for tubular knitted fabric as follows: The mercerizing machine has a de-twisting unit, a water trough, a sodium hydroxide liquor trough, swelling unit, four washing units and a neutralizing unit. t��զ�]�� ` ��/� endstream endobj 131 0 obj 235 endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 594 785 ] /Parent 100 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 107 0 R /F1 106 0 R /F2 108 0 R /F3 109 0 R /F4 122 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 129 0 R >> /ProcSet 127 0 R >> /Contents [ 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R ] /CropBox [ 0 0 594 785 ] /Rotate 0 /Thumb 85 0 R >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Arial,Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Arial,Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 110 0 obj 986 endobj 111 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 110 0 R >> stream 0000001968 00000 n endobj H��V���0���ǭԵ ���[��t�6�^\�M�u "N������^�U�[4f޼�f�U�l.����ɇd�{�%i�e�PL�DH��"���ݯݭ2��dS��[=|�O_�y�=�~cSV�1�j��Ծ��65��*2V�W���g����F��b]����8wv��\�H�u0{3>��`�X���qM,!�/.�f� Tension Mercerization: The purpose of mercerization is to increase luster of Cotton fibers. Gray mercerization is carried out in the very first stage of the whole process, i.e. Mercerization is a process applied to cotton and sometimes to cotton blends to increase lustre (thus also enhancing appearance), to improve strength, and to improve their affinity for dyes. Kento Miura, Takato Nakano, Analysis of mercerization process based on the intensity change of deconvoluted resonances of 13C CP/MAS NMR: Cellulose mercerized under cooling and non-cooling conditions, Materials Science and Engineering: C, 10.1016/j.msec.2015.04.006, 53, (189-195), (2015). 0, `��R�M�!t�t���)!� K�M���3�ږ��������E�,͝�{��9sΙ��PB�?���deMeUudU�5'Q�jZ[:��{���C���������tM�ގ�ߴtd��~yS(!EW�{��e�W��O��/ Q�]��Bb�� )�e�Z8�����;�2��.={�����}y��E�g�{�o�#�r!��-B�. endobj SCOURING Introduction Mercerization is a process to treat cellulosic fibres under tension using a strong caustic sod solution. 5 0 obj This process … <> . 4 6 Optical whitening agents Chemistry and application of Optical whitening agents, Mechanism of action. The objectives of this study were:(i)to determine the optimum conditions under which cotton-man-made cellulosic blends can bemercerized, and (ii)to study the influence of mercerization and degree of stretch on the 0000005399 00000 n U.H�q� process and the method of washing away the alkali. This is important because the fibers’ waxes are not removed consequently a spin finish is not required 4@�bYq����a�����8vB��X��;c�K�0!l��y69��ө~�Y@���t�j�i�l(ٙfb5=��f�gt��h����.�Pm-���:x�\_h�������m4�71mu���,w��̕_m��Y�h�_{I���.��]�µ�@|���e�e�W��ሳ�C�]���qd��F�ّy0�����=Cį�QۆU[4��`�]H���G��t{�y�������g��3J B3��ϼ^�:�8$�����!1��m������!R�ҭq}�����N�zM3�3�� ��W� endstream endobj 112 0 obj 898 endobj 113 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 112 0 R >> stream Set alert. At first fabric is hanked by the roller in a J-Box. The disadvantages stemming from a high content of hemicellulose in recirculated sodium hydroxide solutions used for the mercerization of cellulose in the preparation of viscose are reduced or eliminated by subjecting at least a part of the spent sodium hydroxide solution to an ultrafiltration process to remove part or all of the hemicellulose therein. Mercerized yarns and threads have a silky, vibrant look that sets them apart from non-mercerized materials. The cotton is treated with Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) to swell the fibers and increase the fiber's luster as well as its affinity for dye by increasing the surface area of the fiber. Mercerization, in textiles, a chemical treatment applied to cotton fibres or fabrics to permanently impart a greater affinity for dyes and various chemical finishes. Fabric is passed through a solution which contains 23% NaOH at room temperature. A. Lowe improved it into its modern form in 1890. Mercerization process and apparatus Download PDF Info Publication number US4520520A. About this page. Mercerization is the process of subjecting a vegetable fiber to the action of a fairly concentrated solution of a strong base so as to produce great swelling with resultant changes in fine structure, dimensions, morphology and mechanical properties. ]�#�?��q���^�U�����y銹�?Zv�ٳ0\���W��"'-`�Y��^6�o��؋�O�Y�r�Y�G.�L%���}Nvܙ����}����?��{:H(��^FDz��6��;�;D����7����*�PU�*�*�ʂ�*>����"Y���Ս��o����IoA�v��3=c��ˉ���CC��H��u�Q��}�I�$K�zr���AR?�K��jz�0O�Q��JM���&]-ŧ���������DO�pG��)�>!N�'R$=A6�n3������F�����>W��~�y}v�ϋ��"��H�J����{������x=�E 0000007449 00000 n MERCERIZING Mercerizing is the process of treatment of cellulosic material with cold or hot caustic conditions under specific conditions to improve its appearance and physical as well as chemical properties. Basic surfactant concepts; Mechanism of soil removal ; Scouring ; Solvent Systems; Machinary ; Assessment of scouring efficiency ; Bleaching. Mercerization was achieved in a 20% wt NaOH solution, and the cellulosic pulp was suspended and vigorously mixed for 1, 2 and 3 h, at 50 °C. The two major process steps of mercerization and etherification were originally carried out in separate reactors with a dry solids content of about 80 to 90%, and no organic solvent was used (Voss 1939). Mercerization Conditions and Characterized by NIR FT Raman Spectroscopy in Combination with Multivariate Analytical Methods Heléne Almlöf Ambjörnsson,a,* Karla Schenzel,b and Ulf Germgård a Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced commercially in a two-stage process consisting of a mercerization stage followed by an etherification stage. %PDF-1.3 %���� Continuous Mercerization Process Rationale There are three major features that make this process viable.